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Contradictions and flaws 
in the Bible??? 
prepared by Ed Thomason

Published for use year 2000
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This study is a response to a list of alleged Bible contradictions given to me by one who claimed to be an aspiring atheist. I respect the young man who gave me this and all like him that are struggling to find God. However, his argument against faith in God based upon alleged contradictions in the Bible shows a lack of Bible study on his part rather than a lack of inspiration on the part of the Bible.

The information printed as "Comment" are the written comments that he gave me to consider. The information printed under "Response" will be my response.


Not all of these contradictions totally invalidate Christianity. That’s not the purpose, they’re here more for the sake of invalidating the claims of Inerrantists that the Bible is without error. I think you can see that many are clearly falsely copied facts, mistaken numbers, etc.


The Bible in its original manuscript form was complete and “without error.” Through the years some copyist errors have resulted in rare, but existing, “word order” errors and “misspelling” errors and “omissions.” These “flaws” are like tears in an ancient document. They confirm the antiquity of the document and the amazing thing is that they are rare and not common which shows how carefully the Bible has been copied down through the centuries. The vast majority of the following alleged “contradictions and flaws of the Bible” are the result of poor study habits by the author of the document (who ever he might be). He seems to have only a passing familiarity with the Bible and perhaps a desire to see contradictions where there are none. A careful examination of each text “in its context” and in the overall context of the Bible’s theology will show that these are not actual contradictions but the author has simply misunderstood and not taken the time to study carefully the book he seems to be quick to invalidate. If we might quote the Lord himself. “Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.” (Matthew 22:29.) May we add 2 Tim 2:15 which says, “Study to shew thyself approved of God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” A little time spent studying, thinking, and considering what others have written about these alleged contradictions might be time well spent.

1. How many Gods are there?


(Gen 3:22) God said “MAN HAS BECOME LIKE ONE OF US.”

(Deut 6:4) God is one God.

Response: "Us" in Gen. 1:26 refers to the Holy Trinity (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.) The God of the Bible is a God of three personalities, separate yet "one" in purpose and aim. The word "God" is a singular word with a plural meaning like the word "family." We might speak of "one family." Yet, that one family may have several persons within it. Yet, as a family, they are still "one." A husband and wife become "one flesh." Yet, they are two persons united as one family. The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are all deity, united in purpose and in their divine qualities. It was the Trinity that spoke in the beginning and said, "Let US make man..." THERE IS NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

2. When was God first called Jehovah?

(Gen 4:26) long before Moses, men began to call on the name of the Lord, “Jehovah.”

(Gen 22:14) Abraham named a place Jehovah-jireh. “The Lord will provide.”

(Exodus 6:2-3) God informed Moses that previously His name (Jehovah) had been unknown even to the patriarchs such as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.


Although it is a little harder to explain, there are a number of possible explanations for what at first appears to be a contradiction in these passages. First, rather than using the above paraphrase, look at the actual text. Ex 6:2-3 says, “And God spake unto Moses and said unto him, I am the Lord; And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by the name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.” God did not say that the Patriarchs had never heard of nor used the name Jehovah as stated above. (Obviously they did, Cf., Gen 22:14.) God actually said that he was not “known” to them by that particular title or name. The word “know” in this context seems to be the key to unlocking its meaning. God had not made himself “known” (had not appeared or manifested himself) to the Patriarchs using the title Jehovah. Gen. 17:1 is an example of what the text is saying: “And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.” Prior to Moses, when God appeared or made his presence known in some type of manifestation, he came as the Almighty God. (‘el sadday.) Abraham used the name Jehovah in reference to God in passages such as Gen 22:14 and named a place after Jehovah but again, the passage in Ex 6 does not say the Patriarchs were ignorant of God’s name, but that God never came to them using this title as he approached them or made himself known to them. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

3. When did the Nephilim live?

(Gen 6:4) The Nephilim (giants) lived on earth prior to the flood

(Gen 7:23) Only Noah and his family and the animals on the Ark survived the flood

((Numb 13:33) Long after the flood, the Nephilim (Giants) still lived.


The giants that lived before the flood died in the flood as did every one else that was not on the Ark. But the genetic possibility for features that would make people tall as well as features that would make people short continued on within the sons of Noah. After several generations these features manifested themselves. The giants in Numb 13 were not the same as those before the flood. It was new generation of such people.


4. Does God repent?

(Gen 6:6) God does repent.

(Numbers 23:19) God does not repent.

(I Samuel 15:11, 35) God does repent


This alleged contradiction shows a lack of word study. The King James Version often uses the word repent where the word “regret” would be a clearer translation. God “regretted” that he had created man when he saw how sinful he was. (Gen. 6:6). But God had no reason to be penitent. He has no sins to repent of. This alleged contradiction comes from the misfortune of using archaic translations where often the same word is used that has several meanings. Even today we have similar words in our vocabulary. For example: “Poor little Johnny, he has no toys. But even so he still has a ball every time he goes outside.” If he has no toys, how can he have a ball? See the point. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

5. Who has ascended to heaven?

(Gen 5:24) Enoch was taken bodily into Heaven

(II Kings 2:11) Elijah ascended to heaven in a whirlwind.

(John 3:13) Jesus said that no man but himself has ever ascended to heaven.

(Hebrews 11:5) Enoch was taken bodily into Heaven.


Gen 5:24 and Heb 11:5 simply says God “took” Enoch and “translated” him and does not say he ascended into heaven “bodily” (in fact one could argue that when the Bible says he was “translated” it meant he was “changed” from a bodily form to another form perhaps a spiritual form. His spirit or soul went from this world to the place for departed spirits (what the Bible calls Sheol or Hadies.) In the Bible the word heaven can refer to different things depending on the context. There is the heaven above our heads (the sky) and there is the abode of God (also called heaven.) Elijah went up by way of a whirlwind into heaven (which could refer to God’s abode or simply the sky.) Even if we were to accept that Elijah was taken into God’s abode (which is unlikely) we would still find that the full context of John 3:13 and the words of Jesus do not contradict these other passages. Jesus was saying that no man has ever ascended into heaven for the purpose (according to the context of verse 12) of knowing heavenly things and returning to reveal them. Jesus himself is the only one who has ascended and descended from heaven (he himself being deity with full access to heaven) for the purpose of revealing heavenly things. Neither Enoch nor Elijah ever did this. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

6.Math quiz: How many animals went on the Ark?

(Gen 6:19-20) God told Noah to take with him on the ark two of every kind of animal to include birds, animals and creeping things.

(Gen 7:2-3) God told Noah to take with him on the ark seven of every clean animal and bird and two of every unclean animal.


One can hardly find a contradiction here when the context is examined. God first gave Noah a general command regarding the animals coming 2 x2. Then he became more specific and required that there also be 7 each of the “clean animals” (those used for sacrifices). This would insure the survival of the species once Noah’s sacrificial offerings were made after leaving the Ark. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

7. Math quiz: How long was the flood?

(Gen 7:17, 8:6) The flood was on the earth 40 day and nights.

(Gen 7:24, 8:3) The flood was on the earth 150 days CONTRADICTS

(Gen 7:11) The flood began during the 600th year, 2nd month, 17th day of Noah’s life and finally dried up (Gen 8:13) during the 601st year, 1st month, 1st day of Noah’s life (1 solar year from the date given in Gen 7:11).

Response: Gen. 7:14 tells us that it rained 40 days and nights. This was only the 1st phase of the great flood. At the end of the 40 days of rain, the water then covered the earth for 150 days (phase 2, Gen.7:24) before it began to drain off (which was phase 3.) It was not until the 601st year of Noah's life (Gen. 8:13), one year after the first rain drops began to fall, that the land was finally dry enough for Noah to leave the ark. THERE IS NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

8. When did the world develop many different languages?

(Gen 11:1.6-9) In the days of Babel, generations after the flood, the world had one common language. God “confused the tongues” to create many.

(Gen 10:5) Prior to Babel, the Bible speaks of many “nations,” each with its own language.


This certainly shows a lack of reading skills to allege a contradiction here. The text in Gen 10:5 is a genealogical record inserted into the story line and reveals to the reader which nations descended from each of the sons of Noah. The writer interrupted the chronological story line to give us this “table of nations.” He then resumes the story in the next chapter by telling about Babel which explains why the nations came to speak different languages. They were not speaking different languages until after Babel.


9. Does God cause confusion?

(Gen 11:9) God confused the language of all the Earth at Babel.

(EX 15:24) God troubled (CONFUSED BY SOME TRANSLATIONS) the army of Egypt

(I Sam 7:10) God thundered upon the Philistines so as to confuse them.

(I Cor 14:33) God is not the author of confusion.


If you take the time to consider the overall context of I Cor 14:33, you will see that the author is saying that God is not the author (origin) of confusion “in worship in the church.” The text indicates that some within the church at Corinth were being disorderly and creating confusion by getting up and prophesying at the same time. They may have acted like they did not have control over themselves but the apostle Paul said they did and that God was not the source of such confusion. The text is not intended to be a blanket statement but a statement which should be taken in its context. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

10. Math quiz: How long did Terah live?

(Gen 11:26, 32) Terah lived 135 years after begetting Abraham (he begat Abram at age 70 and lived 205 years total.)

(Gen 12:4) Abraham was 75 years old when he departed Haran

(Acts 7:4) Abraham departed Haran when his father (Terah) was dead.


In the Old Testament writings of Moses, the descendants of a man are given with the youngest first and oldest last (Cf. Gen 10:1 where the sons of Noah are listed in descending order also.) Abraham and his brothers were not triplets! Abraham was the youngest son of Terah and according to the math would have been born when Terah was 130 years old. Haran, the oldest was born when Terah was 70 according Gen 11:26. The fallacy and cause for confusion is the suggestion that Abraham was born when Terah was 70. But he was not - it was the oldest son Haran that the writer has reference to. He is saying that Terah began having children at age 70 and then lists his children with the youngest first and oldest last. But again according to the math, Terah was 130 by the time his youngest (Abraham) was born. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

11. Who has seen God?

(Gen 18:1) The Lord appeared to Abraham.

(Gen 32:24-30) Jacob saw and wrestled with God.

(Ex 24:9-11) Moses and 73 elders gazed upon God.

(Exodus 33:11 and Deut 34:10) God spoke to Moses face to face.

(Isa 6:1-13) Isaiah stood before God and saw him

(Ezek 1:27-28) Ezekiel saw God in a vision and described him in some detail

(Amos 7:7) Amos saw God

(John 1:18, 6:46) No one has ever seen God.

(I Tim 6:16) God is un-seeable

(I John 4:12) No one has ever seen God.


First of all remember that God is a Spirit (a spiritual not physical being). Any visual glimpses of him would have to be some type of “manifestation.” Such as a burning bush, an angel, a man (as in Gen 18:1, 32:24-30 etc.) or a highly symbolic vision (as in Isa 6, Ezek 1 etc.). When Ex 33:11 says that God spoke to Moses “face to face as man speaks to a friend,” (taking the whole thought of the passage) the writer was using a form of speech to simply say they were communicating as friends would communicate. The same text in verse 20 has God telling Moses “thou canst not see my face; for there shall no man see me, and live.” So obviously, while they spoke as close friends would (face to face), Moses could not actually see God. Later Moses was allowed to have a glimpse of God’s back parts (Ex 33:22-23) but not his face. It is the actual face of the Lord that is unseeable and has not been seen. Remember that when I John 4:12 says that “no man hath seen God at any time,” the author is not discounting the visions of God reported in the Old Testament but those visions were partial or incomplete. The passage in I Timothy 6:16 is a reference to Jesus in his glorified form and not of God. Jesus is the King of Kings (Cf., Rev. 19:6). NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

12 God is fair and a righteous judge.

(Gen 18:25) God claims to judge right
(Gen 22:1-2) God commands Abraham to sacrifice his own son
(Ex 20:5) God admits jealousy
(Deut 32:4) God is perfect, just, true, righteous, upright
(Psalm 92:15) God is not unrighteous
(Isa 45:7) God claims to do good AND evil; all things
(Jer 18:11) God threatens disaster to make a people be good
(Ezek 18:25) God claims to be fair
(Amos 3:6) God admits he makes calamity
(Rom 2:11) God is impartial
(James 1:13) God is not tempted by evil and tempts no one with evil


The coupling of these texts is suppose to bring God’s righteousness into question by the reader. But those who are familiar with the texts do not see the contradiction. God’s command for Abraham to sacrifice his son was a test of Abraham’s faith and obedience. God never intended to allow him to go thru with it as is evident from the story. An angel stopped Abraham and then God provided an animal sacrifice. Yes, God is a jealous God when men begin to worship idols. Who has ever said that jealousy is always and act of unrighteousness? God possesses a righteous jealousy as well as a righteous indignation. The text in Isa 45:7 says that God claims to do good AND evil things. The evil things has reference to his divine wrath upon the wicked. This does not mean he is not righteous. His evil is always upon the wicked and rebellious who have been warned of his wrath and bring evil down upon their own heads. In Jer 18:11, God threatened disaster in order to get people to repent. He disciplines his children as a righteous father should. In Amos 3:6 God brought calamity upon the wicked and rebellious who had been warned. Again this was righteous indignation and wrath against the evil. Question for the author: If a judge today passes sentence upon a law breaker - is he unrighteous or righteous? Is he fair or unfair? Men today should learn and know God’s will - it has been revealed. When he punishes those that are evil he is being both fair and righteous as a judge. A judge which is impartial (Rom 2:11). NO CONTRADICTION HERE

13. Who was Keturah?

(Gen 25:1) Keturah was Abraham’s wife
(I Chron 1:32) Keturah was Abraham’s concubine


Here is where the reader needs to simply consult a good dictionary. A concubine in the Bible is one who is lawfully united in marriage but has a relationship that is inferior to that of a regular wife. Such was Keturah. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

14. Who sold Joseph into slavery?

(Gen 37:36) The Midianites sold Joseph in Egypt to Potiphar, the courtier of Pharaoh
(Gen 39:1) The Ishmaelites brought Joseph to Egypt and sold him to Potiphar, the courtier of Pharaoh.


Midianites were descendants of Keturah. Ismaelites were descendants of Hagar the handmaid of Sarah. Both were descendants of Abraham. In time however, the term Ismaelite came to refer not just to one’s lineage or race but to all who were of the nomadic tribes in North Arabia. Today all Arabs think of themselves as Ismaelites. Cf., Judges 8:22-24 for a similar example. In Genesis, one passage uses the specific lineage or tribe that had bought Joseph while in the other passage the author uses the more general term for trading nomads by the time that the story was written. NO CONTRADICTION HERE

15. Where was Jacob buried?

(Gen 50:13) Jacob was buried in Canaan in a cave which Abraham had purchased from Ephron the Hittite.
(Acts 7:15-16) Jacob was buried in Sychem in a sepulcher which Abraham had purchased from Emmor.


Here is an actual Scribal error. Not an error in the original text but obviously an error made by a copyist in later centuries. There are two separate burial incidents in the Old Testament which have become confused by a scribe. The passage in Gen 50:13 is correct. But in Joshua 24:30 we have the passage that has become confused in Acts 7. Joshua 24:32 says, “And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for an hundred pieces of silver...” Unfortunately the scribal error has Stephen preaching in Acts 7 that Jacob was buried in the tomb of Joseph. The two incidents are mixed together in Acts by what is believed to be a scribal error. It is amazing that there are not more such copyist errors in a document as old as the Bible. The fact that they are few (and this is one) shows how careful the scribes were in making copies down through the years. We should expect a few tears and scars on a document as old as the Bible that has been handled by men over so many centuries. Such shows more than ever its authenticity! A FLAW, BUT NO CONTRADICTION HERE

16. Does God condone or condemn lying?

(Ex 1:18-20) God deals well with midwives for lying to the King of Egypt
(Ex 20:16) Lying forbidden

(Josh 2:4-6) Rahab hides two men from the King of Jericho and lies to him and is dealt well with by God

(Prov 12:22) Lying is an abomination to God.

(James 2:25) James preaches that Rahab was justified for hiding two men and lying
(Rev 21:8) All liars will burn in the lake of fire.


“God once winked at (over looked) sins” (Acts 17:30) “but now commands all men everywhere to repent.” Yes, God chose to overlook (wink at) some on man’s sins in the past. But that does not mean that he approved of such then nor now. However, today God does not promise to look the other way, so we had best always tell the truth. (By the way, the passage in James 2:25 says nothing about Rahab being justified for lying.)

17. How about stealing?

(Ex 3:21-22) Plundering commanded
(Ex 20:15) Stealing forbidden


God gave them this spoil from their Egyptian masters. They did not just take it but their Masters lent it to them (Ex 12:36.) The Egyptians had become wealthy at the expense of their Israelite slaves. In a real sense, it was back wages for 400 years of bondage.

18. Does God afflict people with illnesses?

(Ex 4:11) God admitted He is the cause of blindness, deafness, dumbness.
(Lam 3:33) God does not willingly cause grief or affliction.


Read the whole context of Lam. 3:32 and 33. Verse 32 says, “But though he cause grief, yet will he have compassion according to the multitude of his mercies. For he doth not afflict willingly nor grieve the children of men.” Yes, God sometimes causes grief and sometimes afflicts (he does not deny that) but he does not do so “willingly.” He is forced, as a father who loves his children is forced, to chasten his children for their good. He is forced, as a righteous judge is forced, to punish evil doers. 2 Peter 3:9 says, “God is not willing that any perish, but that all come to repentance.” Yet, if men do not repent his righteousness will force him to punish them even though he is not willing. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

19. Did God kill off the Pharaoh’s livestock, or didn’t he?

(Ex 9:3-6) God killed all the cattle (field animals) of the Egyptians with a grievous murrain including the horses, asses, camels, oxen and sheep. None survived the plague.
(Ex 14:9) Pharaoh later chases Israel with all his horses and chariots.


A careful study of the text reveals that God destroyed the “field animals.” Not those in the stables. Obviously, the stable horses were used to pull Pharaoh’s chariots. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

20. Is God peaceful?

(Ex 15:3) He is a God of war.

(I Cor. 14:33) He is not a God of confusion but of peace.


Just because someone has a peaceful nature and loves peace does not mean they will not become involved in a fight in order to protect the innocent that he or she loves. The same is true of God’s nature. God is a God of peace but do not mistake his peaceful nature as passive when there is injustice. Not all war is wrong. Some war is justifiable. Some war must be waged in order to preserve freedoms and to protect the innocent. It would be wrong to wage war just because one loved war and to wage it against innocent nations. God never did that. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

21. How does God feel about making of images?

(Ex 20:4) Image-making forbidden.
(Ex 25:18) God commands the making of two cherubim.


Ex 20:4 is clarified by verse 5 and should be read as a complete thought. God was not forbidding the artistic representations of sculpture. He was forbidding the sculpture carved for the purpose of being worshipped as an idol. It was the carving of such objects and bowing down to them that God forbade. The Israelites never bowed down to worship the cherubim on the ark of the covenant. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

22. Who pays for sins?

(Ex 20:5) God blames children for the iniquities of the father, even for four generations.

(Deut 5:9) His curse of punishment may extend far beyond the third or fourth generation.

(Deut 24:16) The son should not be punished for the father’s sin. Every man bears guilt only for his own transgressions.

(2 Chron. 25:4) The son should not be punished for the father’s sin. Every man bears guilt only for his own transgressions.

(Ezek 18:19-20) Each is responsible for his own actions, a son does not bear guilt for his father’s sins.

(Rom 5:12,14,19,6:23) All men are considered sinners because of Adam’s sin. Death, the punishment for sin, is inflicted even on those who did not sin, because Adam sinned.


Ex 20:5 does not say that God blames the children for the iniquities (sins) of the fathers, but that his wrath would affect them for several generations. (In other words, our children sometimes reap the consequences associated with the afflictions administered to their fathers. For example: If you should commit a crime and go to jail, your children and grandchildren would suffer many losses and have to endure the embarrassment and shame of your actions and punishment. Our actions have far reaching repercussions.) Even though our sins do have far reaching effects, God still holds each individual sinner responsible for his own sins (Deut 24:16, 2 Chron 25:4 etc.) The passages from Romans do not say that all men are considered sinners because of Adam’s sin as alleged above. (It does not teach that men are born sinners or that we inherit Adam’s sin. We do reap the consequence and that is “death.”) Verse 19a, teaches that because of Adam’s sin, many (not all) were made sinners (i.e., those who reach an age of accountability and choose to follow Adam in his rebellion against God.) Verse 19b, teaches that because of what Christ did, many (not all) shall be made righteous (i.e., those who reach an age of accountability and follow Christ in their obedience to God.) NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

23. How does God feel about selling one’s daughter?

(Ex 21:7) Conditions are set up for selling one’s daughters.

(Lev 19:29) It is forbidden to sell a daughter.


The passage in Ex 21:7 refers to the provision of a daughter becoming a concubine (legal slave/wife.) Special provisions were made in order to protect her honor. The passage in Lev. 19:29 refers to prostitution. The slave/wife or concubine situation was an honorable way that God allowed in those ancient times for one who was poor to provide for his daughter’s well being. She would be legally married and was not to be abused. The selling of one’s daughter as a prostitute was sinful and despicable. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

24. Who inscribed the commandments on stone?

(Ex 34:27-28) God dictated the second set of 10 commandments on stones which Moses made.

(Deut 10:1-2,4) God inscribed the second set of 10 commandments on stones which Moses made.


Here we must be careful to keep the context in tact and understand the use of grammar. Ex 34:1 begins the chapter by saying: “And the Lord said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest.” (It is God’s clear intent to personally write the 10 commandments on these tablets which we find he actually did (Ex 34:28 and Deut 10:1-2,4). Ex 34 continues in verse 27 to say, “And the Lord said unto Moses, write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.” (The instruction to Moses is not to write the 10 commandments but “these words,” which refers to all the many commands that God had given. Forty days were spent doing this by Moses. In fact, in the next verse 28 there is a commentary like parenthesis in thought. Verse 28 says, “And he (Moses) was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water.” Why would this information be added here in the text? It was to inform us of how long it took Moses to write “these words” which included all of the levitical laws and instructions regarding the tabernacle etc. When verse 28 continues, the pronoun “he” refers back to God in verse one and not to Moses. It says, “And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.” This is a simple and reasonable understanding of the text. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

25. So, did God say it, or not?

(Lev. chapters 1-7) After delivering the Jews from Egypt, God went into minute detail regarding sacrifices and burnt offerings.

(Jer. 7:22) God denied that he ever said anything about sacrifices or burnt offerings.


At first this seems like a difficult point to explain. But when the complete context of the passage in Jeremiah 7 is considered we find that the nation of Israel was guilty of grievous rebellion against God and flagrant hypocrisy. They were worshipping the Canaanite idols known as Baal (verse 9) and then coming into the temple to worship God (verse 10-11.) They were just going through the rituals of making animal sacrifices and burnt offerings without any regard to the true meaning of worship or respect for God. And so in the text under question God is simply making a point about priorities. It was a mistake to think that the covenant he made with their forefathers was about sacrifices and offerings. It was about loyalty and obedience. Without obedience the offerings and worship meant nothing. So while he did speak about offerings at Sinai, they missed the point he was making if they thought that a few rituals is all that was needed to keep covenant with God. He wanted their complete loyalty and obedience. So he is pointing out the need for priority. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

26. Where do the rules on what types of food to eat come from?

(Lev 3:17, 11:1-47) God gave many rules about what may be eaten or handled.

(Col 2:20-23) Such rules come from man, not God.


Here the contradiction is the result once more of poor study habits and a failure to rightly divide the word of God. The passage in Lev. is in the Old Testament covenant that God made with Israel. That covenant has been replaced by the New Testament covenant of Jesus. The old Levitical laws applied only to those living under the law of Moses. Today we live under the law of Christ. In the New Testament passage of Col 2, the apostle Paul is not referring to the Levitical laws of the old covenant but to man made laws that some false teachers were trying to bind upon Christians. Such he says, does not come from God but man. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

27. Should we judge others?

(Lev 19:15) You must judge your neighbor in righteousness.

(Matthew 7:1) Judge not or you will be judged.


There are two ways to judge someone. You can judge them righteously. (Be certain of all the facts, do so without bias and with fairness and compassion.) Or, you can judge them unrighteously. (Rashly, without fairness, compassion or charity and possibly with hypocrisy.) In Matthew 7:1, Jesus was forbidding this second type of judgment. In the overall context of this sermon Jesus is teaching his disciples not to be hypocrites. (Cf., 6:1ff, 6:16ff,) In the text itself he continues to apply his statement to the hypocrite who tries to get a speck out of someone’s eye while he has a beam in his own. (Cf.,, Matthew 7:3-5.) It is not all judging that is forbidden but rash and hypocritical judgments. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

28. Can I wear long hair and still be “clean?”

(Numbers 6:2-6) Describes the process for being clean in order to consecrate an offering; involves not allowing a razor to come upon his head and letting the locks of his hair grow.

(I Corinthians 11:14) Paul describes that it is a shame for any man to have long hair.


The passage in Numbers is a reference to a Nazarite vow under the Old Testament law of Moses. (A law system that we are no longer under.) But in those ancient days, when one took such a vow, it was for a limited time. Sooner or later, the vow would be fulfilled and the hair would be cut. In the New Testament passage of I Corinthians 11:14, Paul wrote: “Doth not even nature itself teach you, that if a man have long hair it is a shame unto him.” The word “nature” does not refer to physical nature but to long standing “customs” or “practices” of humanity. It is the “norm” for men to wear their hair shorter than women. This is why, letting one’s hair grow long when taking the Nazarite vow in the preceding passage was so unusual. It went against nature (the norm of society.) But even so, Paul continues in verse 16 of his text to say that “if any man seem contentious we have no such custom, neither the church of God.” In Christ’s church, there is no “custom” regarding hair length! The “norm” in Corinth, during the first century when Paul wrote was for men to wear their hair short. But if someone was contentious about it, Paul made it clear that there are no customs regarding hair length in the church. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

29. Does God keep his word?

(Numbers 23:19) God does not change. Makes good his promises.

(I Samuel 2:30-31) God admits not keeping his promise.

(2 Kings 20:1-6) God says one thing, then changes his mind and says another.

(Jonah 3:10) God doesn’t keep his promise to destroy.


God’s gifts are always good. He does not promise one thing and do another. He is the same unchangeable God and is ever faithful to reward righteousness and punish wickedness. I Samuel 2 simply shows that God’s promises are based upon morality. Eli was the high priest but he allowed his sons to become corrupt as they served in the priest hood. He failed as a father and as a religious leader to restrain them from taking bribes and committing fornication in the doorway of the tabernacle. As a result of their wickedness the priest hood was taken away from this family. God’s promises are conditional. He promises to reward the righteous and punish the wicked and this text shows that he makes no exceptions. As for Jonah 3, this passage teaches that God turned from the evil that he had threatened Ninevah with. They had been a wicked people and deserved punishment but there is a part of his promise that the above argument left off. Jeremiah 18:8 says, “if that nation, against whom I have pronounced, turn from their evil, I will repent (i.e., turn from) the evil that I thought to do unto them.” It is upon this principle that God always deals with man. When Israel sinned, God no longer blessed them. Favor is conditioned upon repentance; and blessings, many times, may be had for the asking. For example, Hezekiah (2 Kings 20) asked for his life to be lengthened and God granted his request after previously informing him it was time to get his house in order because he would soon die. Instead of contradicting, these passage establish the truthfulness that God keeps his word to bless the righteous (including those who repent) and punish the wicked.* NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

30. Has God ever lied?

(Numbers 23:19) God cannot lie.

(I Kings 22:20-30) God deliberately sent a “lying spirit” into the mouth of Ahab’s prophets.

(2 Chronicles 18:19-22) God deliberately sent a “lying spirit” into the mouth of Ahab’s prophets.

(2 Thessalonians 2:11-12) God sends delusions on people to make them believe false things and be damned.

(Titus 1:2) God cannot lie.

(Hebrews 6:18) It is impossible for God to lie.


None of the above texts show where God has ever lied. It is impossible for Him to do so. God permitted certain things to be done in order that judgment might come upon the wicked. 2 Thess. 2:11 speaks of people who rejected God and followed Satan for so long that God no longer watched over them. He sent - or permitted them to receive - a strong delusion. I Kings 22:19-23 is a vision which the prophet relates. King Ahab rejected God’s word and would not believe God’s prophets. God, therefore, permitted lying spirits to lead Ahab to destruction. Many times God is represented as doing that which he only permits. In Matthew 8:32 Christ is represented as commanding devils to go into swine. Yet, by the preceding verse we learned they besought him, hence the command “Go” was used permissively.* NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

31. Is God loving, merciful, kind, etc.?

(Numbers 25:4) God commands Moses to hang the leaders in the sun to calm God’s anger.

(Deut. 4:25) God is a consuming fire, a jealous God.

(I Samuel 6:19) God strikes 50,070 dead for a sin with no compassion.

(I Samuel 15:2,3) God commanded utter destruction of a nation of people for one man’s sin.

(2 Samuel 21:1) God causes a three year famine because of the doings of one man’s house.

(I Chron. 16:34) God is good and merciful.

(Psalm 25:8) God is good and upright

(Psalm 145:8-9) God is gracious, compassionate, slow to anger, merciful, and good to all.

(Jeremiah 17:4) God will be angry at Judah forever.

(Ezek 18:32) God finds no pleasure in death.

(James 5:11) God is very compassionate and merciful

(I John 4:16) God is love.


These texts are summed up by Romans 11:22 which says in part, “Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God . . .” Yes, God has two sides. He is good to those who do good, but severe in his punishment and righteous judgment toward those who do evil. Repent or perish is God’s decree to mankind down through the ages and these texts indicate what happens to those who persist in evil. They should serve as warnings that while God is merciful and long-suffering and patient, he will punish those who persist in evil.

A few notes on the above texts may be of interest. I Sam 15:2,3 is not a reference to “one man’s sin.” (This shows a lack of Bible knowledge on the part of the author.) “Amalek” was not one man who sinned but a reference to the whole nation. (Just as the name “Israel” is a reference a nation and not one man.) Amalek, the whole nation, had sinned by attacking the rightous and murdering the weak and helpless. Therefore they were punished for “their” sins. (A parallel example within our times would be when Nazi Germany attacked neighboring nations and committed terrible crimes. Such a nation deserves to be stopped and punished.) Next, the three year famine mentioned in 2 Samuel 21 came about because of the action of one man’s house as stated above but consider who that one man was -- the King! A nation’s corrupt leadership often has an adverse affect upon the whole nation. Next, the passage in Jer 13 says that God will not pity, nor spare, etc. When you read the whole chapter you find out why. God destroyed without pity a people who were vile and wicked to the core! In verse 23 he suggests that it would be easier for a leopard to change his spots than for this vile people to repent. They were so hardened in their hearts that they would never change. Last, the passage in Jer 17:4 that says, “God would be angry with Judah forever” is a reference to a specific generation during that time span and not to succeeding generations. I can’t find a contradiction in these verses. They simply point out that God has two sides. Which side we see (goodness or severity) depends upon us. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

By the way isn’t it interesting that men today have difficulty deciding when to punish a child or as a jury they have trouble deciding how much punishment to give a criminal, or as a nation, how much firepower to use toward an enemy nation - but some want to tell God how to run the Universe and how severe he should be or not be toward the wicked! Now that is a contradiction.

32. Did the Midianites survive or not?

(Numbers 31:7,9,15-18) The Israelites slew all the Midianites except the female virgins.

(Judges 6:1-5) Later, the Midianites invaded the Israelites.


The Midianites were a large race of nomadic people that roamed a large area of land. The war with the Midianites in Numbers 31 must have been a local war with a large segment of the tribe that had crossed paths with Israel. Obviously there were other segments of the race as indicated by Judges 6, etc.


33. Can we love AND fear God?

(Deuteronomy 6:5) We must love God.

(Deuteronomy 6:13) We must fear God.

(Matthew 22:37) We must love God.

(I Peter 2:17) We must fear God.

(I John 4:18) Perfect love cannot be mingled with fear.


Obviously the possibility of having two emotions at the same time is not at issue here. One can love his Dad but at the same time have a respectful fear of his discipline. The same is true with God. We can love him as our provider of blessings and as our Creator and as our Heavenly Father but at the same time maintain a healthy respect and reverence for his wrath. The interesting thing about love however is that as it matures (becomes perfect) fear lessens. As children we might fear our parents and obey them because we know the consequences that will follow if we don’t. But as adults, we still do what they ask us to do, not so much out of fear of any consequences but out of love for them. The same is true about perfect love as discussed in I John 4:18 above. We may be motivated to obey God at first out of fear. But as we come to know and love God more and more the fear fades and we obey not because we are afraid of punishment but because we love God and do not want to offend him or hurt him by our misbehaviour. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

34. Did Ai burn, or not?

(Joshua 8:28) Joshua burnt the city of Ai, making it an ash heap forever.

(Nehemiah 7:32) Ai is counted among the existing cities of Jerusalem approx. 1000 years later.


The ancient city of Ai was destroyed by Joshua and as far as we know remains an ash heap buried by the centuries. In fact, no one knows for sure where the city was located. As far as we know, it has never been unearthed by archaeologist. The later city of Ai, mentioned in Nehemiah was probably built near the site of the old ancient city or in the region where it was located and came to have the same name as the earlier city. Just because two cities have the same name does not mean that they are the same city or built in the exact same location. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

35. Was Sisera standing or lying down when he was killed?

(Judges 4:21) Jael killed Sisera by driving a tent stake through his head while he slept, fastening his head to the ground.

(Judges 5:26-27) When Jael killed Sisera with the tent peg, he sank to the ground at her feet and died.


The text in Judges 5 does not say that Sisera “sank to the ground at her feet and died.” In this text, the prophetess Deborah is singing a song. Her lyrics in verse 27 are not depicting so much his demise as his fall from power. As he slept at her feet, Jael drove the tent peg through his skull. Deborah sings: “At her feet he bowed, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bowed, he fell: where he bowed there he fell down dead.” She is saying that the place where he bowed at the feet of a woman to lay down is where he fell (was overpowered and destroyed.) NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

36. Are women allowed any role of dominance?

(Judges 4:4,14-15) Deborah is a prophetess of God, commands men to fight for their freedom.

(Acts 2:18) Man servants and maid servants alike will prophesy.

(I Timothy 2:11-12) Women commanded to learn in silence with submission, not permitted to teach or have authority over a man.


There is no contradiction within these texts. Deborah lived under the law of Moses. She led the nation by “default” because the men would not take the lead. The other passages are more relevant for our time because they are in the New Testament law of Christ. Yes, there were female prophets in the first century (cf., Acts 21:9, 2:18, etc.,) but nowhere do we read of them taking the public lead in teaching or having authority over men. Their prophesying must have been in private and among the other women. The fact that some women in the early church of the first century wanted a more dominate role in the worship of the church (in its assemblies) is the reason for what was written in I Timothy 2. This text, by the way, does not say that a woman cannot teach. (She can teach children, other women, and sometimes even a man in privacy as long as she does so in such a way that she does not usurp authority over a man.) There will always be debate over the role of women in the church but these verses do not contradict. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

36. Who killed the Amalekites, and how many died.

(I Samuel 15:7-8,20) Saul completely destroyed the Amalekites.

(I Samuel 27:8-9) David completely destroyed the Amalekites

(I Samuel 30:1-2,17) David destroyed a raiding party of Amalekites. Only 400 men escaped.

(I Chronicles 4:42-43) The Simeonites kill all the Amalekites.


Saul was commanded to utterly destroy the Amalekites but he failed to do so. He argued with Samuel that he had but God and the prophet Samuel knew he had not. His army had slain all that lived in the region from Havilah to Shur according to I Samuel 15:7-8 as listed above. But that does not mean that there were not other regions and strong holds where the Amalekites continued to exist. Saul failed and lied about completely exterminating them. Later, David and his army reduced their size and power but a remnant evidently remained until the time of the Simeonites in I Chronicles 4:43. The Simeonites finally killed the “remaining” Amalekites. There is harmony in these passages when you understand that they did utterly slay all those that they fought with. But obviously history shows that Saul and David did not fight with all of them.


38. Math quiz: How many sons did Jesse have?

(I Samuel 16:10-11) Jesse had seven sons besides his youngest, David.

(I Chronicles 2:13-15) David was the seventh son.


Many scholars think that the passage in I Chronicles is missing a line that was omitted by a copyist somewhere during the long tenure of hand copying the scriptures. (i.e., David’s seventh brother was omitted from the I Chronicles text.) This would again be one of those few and rare copyist errors. However, there is another possible explanation. I Samuel mentions that Jesse introduced seven of his sons to Samuel before sending for David, who would have made a total of eight sons that were “alive at that time.” Later the I Chronicle text names only seven sons of Jesse with David listed as the seventh. What happened to the other son? Perhaps he had died. It may be just be that simple. The passage in Chronicles is genealogical list that gives those descendants of Israel that continued to have descendants of their own.** A child who never had children would have been omited from such a genealogical record. NO CONTRADICTIONS HERE.

39. How much did David pay for his wife?

(I Samuel 18:27) David collected 200 Philistine foreskins and bought a wife (Michal) with them.

(2 Samuel 3:14) David only paid 100 foreskins for his wife.

Response: This argument really shows a lack of bible study. I Samuel 18:25 indicates that Saul (Michal’s father) only required 100. This was the price required as per 2 Samuel 3:14. But David brought twice as many as required in order to make a point with his future father in law. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

40. When did David eat the consecrated bread?

(I Samuel 21:1-6) This event actually occurred in the days of Ahimelech the high priest.

(Mark 2:26) David ate consecrated bread from the House of God, and gave some to his companions in the days of Abiathar the high priest.


Abiathar was the son of Ahimelech. Often sons would reign simultaneously with their father during a transition period. This was evidently such a period. Also we might note that Mark 2 says that the son Abiathar was the “high priest” but the text in I Samuel only indicates that his father Ahimelech was a “priest.” The mantel of the high priest may have already have been passed on at the time that David ate the bread but Ahimelech was still officiating in various priestly duties in the tabernacle at the time. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

41. Did Saul consult the Lord, or not?

(I Samuel 28:6) Saul attempted to consult the Lord.

(I Chronicles 10:13-14) Saul did not consult the Lord.


Saul attempted to consult the Lord (I Samuel 28) but the Lord had departed from him because of his sins. But rather than seeking the consultation and grace of God in all earnestness with a penitent heart, David chose instead to seek counsel from the deceased prophet Samuel through the a sorceress. It was his lack of earnestness in his seeking and his use of sorcery that led to Saul’s death. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

42. How did Saul die?

(I Samuel 31:4-6) Saul committed suicide by having his armor-bearer run him through.

(2 Samuel 1:8-10) Saul asks an Amalekite to kill him, the Amalekite does so.

(2 Samuel 21:12) The Philistines slew Saul in Gilboa.

(1 Chronicles 10:4-5) Saul committed suicide by falling on his sword.


The solution to this puzzle is not as complicated as one might think. First, the text in I Samuel 31 does not say that Saul’s armor-bearer ran him through. It says that Saul after being mortally wounded by Philistine arrows asked his armor-bearer to thrust him through but the armor-bearer refused to do so. Saul then fell on his own sword in order to hasten his impending death before the Philistines could find him and torture him. This is collaborated by the text in I Chronicles 10. Second, the text in 2 Samuel gives the report of an Amalekite who claimed that he had killed Saul when he asked him to do so. The Amalekite was obviously lying. A lie which back fired on him which you learn as you read the account. Last, the text in 2 Samuel 21 says that the Philistine slew Saul. Which is also true in the sense that their arrows had already mortally wounded Saul before he fell on his own sword and hastened his death. Later when they found his body, the Philistines cut off Saul’s head (I Sam 31:8-9.) The confusion occurs in the mind of the skeptic because of a failure to note that the Amalekite was lying and that Saul was mortally wounded by the Philistines before falling on his own sword.


43. How many kids did Michal have?

(2 Samuel 6:23) Michal had no children all her life.

(2 Samuel 21:8) Michal had five children by Adriel.


Some have suggested that here is another scribal error. That the name Michal was inadvertently substituted for the name of Michal’s sister Merab, Saul’s daughter, who was married to Adriel and who had five children by him. (See I Samuel 18:19.) But such a suggestion is not necessary if one will simply read the text carefully.

2 Samuel 21:8-9 says, “But the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite: And he delivered them into the hands of the Gibeonites and they hanged them in the hill before the Lord...” Notice that the text does not say that Michal was the birth mother of these five sons but that she “brought them up for Adriel.” Obviously, her sister had died and she took her sister’s children into her home and raised them as her own. There is not a contradiction here. Instead we have an example of compassion and caring. The aunt who had no children of her own raised her sister and brother-in-law’s children. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

44. Math quiz: How many horsemen?

(2 Samuel 8:4) David took seven hundred horsemen from Hadadezer.

(1 Chronicles 18:4) David took seven thousand horsemen from Hadadezer.


Here is where it is helpful to have a knowledge of the original languages in which the Bible was written. Often in translating from one language to another, word meanings become skewed. The Hebrew word in front of the word horsemen in I Chronicles 18:4 is the word “awlaph” which means “to join together, to associate, whence a thousand, a family.” In other words, it is frequently used to refer to a large indefinite or round number. (Consult Gesenius’ Hebrew Lexicon, page 59.) From this we may infer that the number sited in 2 Samuel 8:4 is specific and that the number in I Chronicles 18:4 is indefinite, since the author uses the word “awlaph.” * The text in I Chronicles could just as easily have been translated as: “David took seven large numbers of horsemen from Hadadezer. Confusing perhaps but not a contradiction once the facts are considered. A translation problem, but NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

45. Math quiz: How many and what?

(2 Samuel 10:18) David slew 700 Aramean charioteers and 40,000 horsemen.

(I Chronicles 19:18) He slew 7000 Aramean charioteers and 40,000 footmen.


The discussion above would apply to this text also which would explain the alleged discrepancy between 700 and 7000 charioteers. As far as the “what” in reference to the horsemen and footmen, why should we suppose that both cannot be true. One passage reports how many horsemen were slain in battle while the other reports how many footmen. NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

46. Math quiz: Census totals? Uhh, could you re-take that census, please?

(2 Samuel 24:9) David’s census adds up to 800,000 swordsmen of Israel and 500,000 men of Judah.

(I Chronicles 21:5) David’s census adds up to 1,100,000 swordsmen of Israel and 470,000 swordsmen of Judah.


In these two texts we find that there is a difference of 300,000 swordsmen in the two census records regarding Israel and a difference of 30,000 swordsmen in the two census records regarding Judah. (Simple math.) But what is not taken into account is the context of these passages. First, even if we could not account for the discrepancy in number, we really don’t have to. The text in I Chronicles 21:5 specifically states that it contains “all they of Israel.” The I Chronicles text clearly states that it is a “complete accounting” of the number of swordsmen in Israel while the passage in 2 Samuel does not make such a claim. Second, the text in 2 Samuel 24:9 mentions that it is an accounting of the “valiant men” of Israel. (The I Chronicles passage makes no mention of such a distinction and includes “all” as stated above.) This expression “valiant men” refers to the enlisted veterans of war that were presently engaged in war or in keeping the peace. It implies that there were others as listed in I Chronicles that were not “valiant” (i.e., they were in what we might call the reserves and not part of the active army.) Therefore there were 800,000 valiant men in Israel (according to 2 Samuel) and evidently there were 300,000 in reserve and included in the “all of Israel” account in I Chronicles.**

As for the discrepancy in number of the tribe of Judah, here we have a similar situation. Judah (the southern tribe) had a detached reserve of men, an army of 30,000 men scattered along the Philistine frontier and border area serving as observers and minutemen and ready to be banded together if necessary (Cf., 2 Samuel 6:1.) It appears that these were included in the number of five hundred thousand of the swordsmen of Judah as recorded in 2 Samuel; while the author of I Chronicles only mentions the four hundred and seventy thousand soldiers who exclusively served in the tribe of Judah and made no reference to the thirty thousand who were not exclusively of the tribe of Judah and were serving on the frontier.* All things considered there is no real problem here. Perhaps a bit confusing but . . . NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

47. Who caused the census?

(2 Samuel 24:1) God directly incited the census out of anger at Israel.

(I Chronicles 21:1) Satan “rose up” against Israel and incited King David to take a census.


We should always remember that God has the over ruling hand. Not even Satan can act without his allowing him. (Cf., the book of Job.) In these two passages we learn from I Chronicles that Satan is the source of temptation. Satan “rose up” and incited David to take the census. But from the passage in 2 Samuel, we learn that God allowed it to occur. The above argument is wrong in suggesting that God “directly incited the census.” David, like all men always had a choice. God, knowing the nature of David, indirectly moved him by allowing Satan to tempt him rather than protecting David from temptation. God probably knew that David’s nature and temperament at the time was such that he would likely yield to such a temptation. God did not tempt him, Satan did. God merely allowed it to occur as a way of teaching David and Israel a lesson. Perhaps we should again be reminded that “many times God is represented as doing what he only permits.” (See response on point 30.)


48. Yet another math quiz: How many chiefs?

(I Kings 9:23) Solomon had 550 chiefs or officers to oversee the people.

(2 Chronicles 8:10) Solomon had 250 chiefs or officers to oversee the people.


The discrepancy suggested here hardly calls for comment. The number would not have remained the same throughout the reign of Solomon. If we add the figures regarding “overseers” in I Kings 5:16 (3,300) and 9:23 (550) we get the same total (3,850) as when we add 2 Chronicles 2:18 (3,600) and 8:10 (250).


49. Baasha did what while he was dead?

(I Kings 16:6,8) Baasha, King of Israel died in the 26th year of Asa’s reign over Judah.

(2 Chronicles 16:1) In the 36th year of Asa’s reign, Baasha built a city.


There appears to be a scribal error in 2 Chronicles. An omission perhaps. Many scholars think that 2 Chronicles 15:19 should read: And there was no more war unto the five and thirtieth year (i.e. of the kingdom of Judah, the fifteenth year) of the reign of Asa.” [That which is in parenthesis being the part they think has been omitted.] Likewise it is thought that 2 Chronicles 16:1 originally read: “In the six and thirtieth year (i.e., of the kingdom of Judah, the sixteenth year) of the reign of Asa Baasha king of Israel came up against Judah, and built Ramah...” Such would better fit the time frame mentioned in I Kings 15:33 and 16:6-8.

But an even easier to understand copyist error probably occurred. Hebrew numbers are very similar and difficult to read especially if an old manuscript being copied from had been smudged. The Hebrew number for ten is the letter yod and looks something like this: The Hebrew letter for thirty is lamed and looks something like this: Perhaps the copyist was working from a worn document or perhaps he simply made a mistake. At any rate, you can see how this might happen. Basha actually built a city in the 16th year of Asa’s reign which better coincides with the facts stated in I Kings. A copyist error is the cause of the problem not an error in inspiration. PERHAPS A TINY FLAW IN THE ANCIENT GARMENT BUT NO CONTRADICTION HERE.

50. How old?

(2 Kings 8:26) King Ahaziah was 22 years old when he began to reign.

(2 Chronicles 22:2) King Ahaziah was 42 years old when he began to reign.


The passage in 2 Chronicles also contains another orthographical scribal error. Twenty two was inadvertently changed to 42 by a copyist. The similarities of the letters could easily cause such to occur. (See comments above in point 49.) The text in 2 Chronicles should read “twenty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign.” A FLAW IN THE ANCIENT GARMENT BUT NO CONTRADICTION HERE.


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